# Finding Memory leaking, Stack and Heap overflow

When you access an array index, C and C++ don’t do bound checking. Segmentation faults only happen when you try to read or write to a page that was not allocated (or try to do something on a page which isn’t permitted, e.g. trying to write to a read-only page), but since pages are usually pretty big (multiples of a few kilobytes), it often leaves you with lots of room to overflow.

If your array is on the stack, it can be even worse as the stack is usually pretty large (up to several megabytes). This is also the cause of security concerns: writing past the bounds of an array on the stack may overwrite the return address of the function
and lead to arbitrary code execution (the famous “buffer overflow” security breaches).

By setting the following flags you can find the issue:

Example:

References: [1]

# Kalman Filter Explained With Python Code From Scratch

This snippet shows tracking mouse cursor with Python code from scratch and comparing the result with OpenCV. The CSV file that has been used are being created with below c++ code. A sample could be downloaded from here 1, 2, 3.

# Decomposing Projection Using OpenCV and C++

And the output is:

# How to use image_geometry and camera_info_manager in ROS

camera_info_publisher.cpp:

image_geometry_demo.cpp:

CMakeLists.txt

# Open source Structure-from-Motion and Multi-View Stereo tools with C++

Structure-from-Motion (SFM) is genuinely an interesting topic in computer vision, Basically making 3D structure from something 2D is absolutely mesmerizing 🙂

There two open source yet very robust tools for SFM, which sometimes compiling them might be complicated, here I will share my experience with you.

## 1)VisualSFM

### 1)Glew

Download the glew from SF at http://glew.sourceforge.net/. Do NOT get it from Github as to seems to have some problems.

### Prerequisite:

Install DevIl Image library

open makefile and enable siftgpu_enable_cuda

now go to bin directory and libsiftgpu.so to your vsfm bin directory

### VSFM

you can see the some of my results here:

Note: if you don’t have cuda or Nvidia driver you can use your CPU but then you have to limit your file image size and sift binary should be available in your vsfm/bin directory.

Download http://www.cs.ubc.ca/~lowe/keypoints/siftDemoV4.zip and make it and copy the sift binary to vsfm/bin.

## 2)Colmap

The installation fo this one is almost straightforward except you need the latest version of Ceres Solver (do not use the one binary package from Ubuntu they are old and they won’t work). So download and make and install the Ceres Solver using the following:

Now in the colmap CMakeList.txt add the following line:

just before “find_package(Ceres REQUIRED)”

and now you can make and install it. You can see some of my results here:

In the next post, I will show you how can you do that in OpenCV.

# Examples of Dynamic Programming with C++ and Matlab

In this tutorial, I will give you examples of using dynamic programming for solving the following problems:

1)Minimum number of coins for summing X.

2)The most (least) costly path on a grid (dynamic time warping).

3)Levenshtein edit distance.

4)Seam Carving. I have written a tutorial on that here and the recursive part is in the following lines:

The examples are taken from “Competitive Programmer’s Handbook” written by Antti Laaksonen.

# Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) in Image using OpenCV and Matlab



Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) shows the ratio between the maximum possible power of a signal and the power of the same image with noise. PSNR is usually expressed in logarithmic decibel scale.

$$MSE =1/m*n \sum_{i=0}^{m-1} \sum_{j=0}^{n-1} [ Image( i,j) -NoisyImage( i,j) ] ^2$$
$$PSNR =10* \log_{10} \Bigg(MAXI^2/MSE\Bigg)$$

MSE is Mean Square Error and MAXI is the maximum possible pixel value of the image. For instance if the image is uint8, it will be 255.

Ref [1],[2], [3], 4

# get template parameter name and type with Boost demangle

Have you ever tied to get the type of a variable by its name? for instance “int”  or “string“?

The following code snippet shows how to use boost demangle to get the type: